Foot injuries and how you can avoid them

About the structure of the feet, the task, the correct gait and how you can support your feet, informs you the following article.

How are the feet built?

The foot consists of 28 individual bones, 33 joints and more than 100 muscles and ligaments. For the Fußstatik the longitudinal and transverse vaults are very important. The bones include:


Talus (talus), heel bone (calcaneus), scaphoid (os naviculare), three cuneiform bones (cuneiform cuneiform bone), cube bone (cuboid bone)


four middle phalanxes, five terminal phalanxes, two sesame bones at the end phalanx big toe

The talus (talus) of the foot communicates with the tibia and the fibula and together form the upper ankle joint. To fix the bone forks of the lower leg bones, these are connected by very strong bands (syndesmosis bands). Because of the additional fixation by sidebands, there is only dorsal extension (pull foot to shin) and plantarflexion (walk away from shin). The lower ankle joint is formed by the talus, clacaneus and os naviculare and the corresponding articular surfaces. In particular, the division into a posterior and an anterior chamber by the very strong lig. Talocalcaneum interosseum, the intermediate bone ligament. The axis of movement is oblique, so that the foot inner edge, supination, and the foot outer edge, pronation, can be raised. The remaining joints are very tight, so that mainly a light feathers is possible. In the toe joints, spreading is possible as well.

What is the job of the feet?

The tasks of the foot include:

Upright posture by proprioceptors 1 under the sole of the foot (relaying information about the foot's position to the brain)

Recording the body weight and forwarding of the load also the articular surfaces

Keep your balance steady

Compensation of uneven floors

Dynamic movement

For the upright posture, the structure and mobility of the arch of the foot are very important. The longitudinal vault is located on the inner edge of the foot. Bones go the arch of heel bone to the first metatarsal bone. The highest point is formed by the navicular bone at 1.5 - 2 cm from the ground. The stability is ensured by the ribbons on the floor. This tension of the vault is mainly occupied by the Lig. Plantar longum, together with the other shorter ligaments it forms the Plantaraponeurose. The most important muscles for both vaults are the posterior tibialis muscle and the peroneus longus muscle, as well as the toe extensors for the longitudinal arch. The transverse arch is formed in the metatarsal area at the level of the ossa cuneiforma. Stability in addition to the already mentioned muscles, the following ligaments: Lig. Cuneocuboideum, Lig. Cubonaviculare, Ligg. intercuneiformia and ligg. interosseous. (Good to know: how and when bandaging or tape right)

What does the right gait look like?

To describe the right gear, we will discuss the different phases of stance and swing. The stance phases are divided into five: Initial Stance Phase, Shock Vapor Phase, Middle Stance Phase, Terminal Stance Phase and the Advance Phase 2.

Important function for a clean gait is the standing stability on one leg, so that the body can be held upright. In addition, the weight transfer and the forwarding of the body over the supporting foot. Thus, the leg can be optimally prepared for the swing phase. Initial contact requires that the plantar flexion of the foot and full knee extension be free to ensure heel contact. The tasks of Loading responce is the shock absorption, as well as the slow weight transfer on the pillar. In mid-stance, the weight is shifted on the entire foot and is taken over by the leg. In this phase, the swing phase begins for the other leg. At the end of the phase, the forefoot takes over the weight and the heel gradually lifts off. Lifting the heel, the terminal stance begins, now the entire load is on the forefoot, the knee must flex into flexion and the center of gravity is shifted to the front. When the other leg touches down, the terminal stance ends. The pre-swing is characterized by the lifting of the foot, still the knee is stretched. The entire stance phase lasts 60% of a gait cycle.

The swing phases are subdivided into three parts: Initial swing phase, Mid swing phase, and terminal swing phase. 3. Important tasks of the swing phase are the forward swing of the leg without the foot touching the ground, the determination of the stride length by the knee joint and the continuation of the body weight around the leg to prepare for the loading phase. In the initial swing, the foot is lifted and accelerates in the direction of movement. The phase ends when the knee is in maximum flexion. With the mid swing, the foot is still held above the ground and the knee extension begins. The terminal swing completes the gait cycle and stops moving forward. The foot makes contact with the ground and the knee is completely stretched. The entire swing phase occupies 40% of the entire gait cycle.

Can I support my feet?

The feet can be trained through targeted coordination training and avoid injury. "Coordinative exercises are initially performed barefoot to better absorb the information and to set automatic mechanisms by the frequent and intensive response of the short foot muscles. Later, however, it will be particularly important for athletes to train with the current footwear to "adjust" game situations, or to practice the feeling of stabilization with footwear. "

Angi Peukert


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3. Hochschild, Jutta: Understanding structures and functions. Functional Anatomy Therapy Relevant Details. Volume 2, Stuttgart: Thieme 2002.

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