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Hallux valgus and other deformities of the feet

Hallux valgus, the ossification of the big toe - symptoms, treatment, diagnosis. Learn more about hallux valgus and other deformities of the feet in this article:

    Which deformities are there?

    What is a hallux valgus?

    What is a hammer toe?

    What is Morton Metatarsalgia?

    How can malocclusions be treated?

Especially in sports, our feet are exposed to extreme stress. The faster we z. Running while walking, the higher the weight that must be held by the feet. This high load can not stand anyone's foot. It is often due to imbalances or incorrect loading to malpositions of the feet.

More from the category sports medicine: The runner knee

Which deformities are there by a flattened transverse vault?

Misalignment occurs through connective tissue loss of elasticity associated with age, and overstress, such as shortened calf muscles, obesity, running or the wrong footwear in almost any sport.

Typical misalignments due to the flattening of the transverse arch are the splayfoot, hallux valgus, hammer toes and the cutter bale. As the transverse arch sinks, the metatarsals diverge, causing the foot to widen significantly. The main load thereby shifts to the middle metatarsals. The lateral metatarsal bones get more pressure in the footwear itself. In the long term there is an increase in the cornea and pain due to the overload. By pressure and compression (1) the toe joints are irritated and inflamed. This inflammation is called a metatarsalgia, which becomes painful especially during the rolling process.

What is a hallux valgus?

Due to the wide foot position it often comes to hallux valgus. The metatarsal bones are wide by the loss of the vault. This is also called a subluxation of the metatarsal (1), as this deviates into adduction and thus produces a muscular imbalance. Due to the misalignment the vision inevitably change their direction of pull and thus support even more the lateral deviation. It forms a significant "bump" on the big toe side, which can be very sensitive to pressure and pain.

The Schneiderballen is like the Hallux valgus only on the small toe side. He appears much less often.

What is a hammer toe?

The hammer toe is the most common toe shape. It comes to flexion contractures in the middle joint of the toe bones. (2) A contracture is a stiffening usually due to osteoarthritis in the affected joint. In the case of hammer toes, the flexion contracture means that the toe can no longer be stretched.

What is Morton Metatarsalgia?

Mortal metatarsalgia is another complaint of spreading feet. There is an injury to a terminal branch of the tibial nerve. Patients complain of sharp, burning or spasmodic pain on the sole of the foot at the level of the head of the metatarsus until they reach the third and fourth toe. At first, it occurs only under stress, but then as a chronic pain in the resting state. The pain is reproducible by the compression of the metatarsal bones. It can also cause numbness in the toe area. The nerve tissue is usually converted into connective tissue.

Which misalignments are there due to a flattened longitudinal vault?

Due to the sinking of the longitudinal arch, the foot appears sunken. Normally, there is a gap of two fingers between the floor and the inner edge of the foot, in extreme cases it lies completely on top. A somewhat weakened form of the flat foot is the Senkfuß, here the foot edge lowers only under load. The flatfoot is caused by a reduced function of the muscles and the ligaments.

The heel spur is a bony retraction on the heel bone. The ossified withdrawal is caused by micro injuries of the muscle tissue. Micro injuries are caused by overloads, while healing the body stores the collagen in the tendon insertion. This spur can be without discomfort, but it can cause inflammation when this ossified approach is upset.

How can malocclusions be treated?

In the case of misaligned feet, a common remedy of choice is the insole. For the heel spur a recess in the area of ​​the spur is very sensible to provide a pressure relief. However, the longitudinal arch must be supported at the same time. Certain strengthening and stability exercises are important in helping the foot actively learn how to hold the vault. Other options include cortisone injections, shock wave therapy or laser treatments to reduce the pain. One last option is the operation.

The treatment in the area of ​​the flat foot can be approached a little more active. Important are barefoot running, soft soles and foot exercises. If activation does not work, deposits are also prescribed and in the extreme case, surgery must be performed.

The hallux valgus can also be treated with foot exercises, but it depends very much on the expression. Strongly pronounced, the toe can only correct operationally.

The treatment of the splayfoot aims fully at the relief of the metatarsal heads. You work with a pad, which is incorporated either in insoles or in the shoe. Thus, the stress and pressure calluses can be reduced.

Author: Angi Peukert


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4. Hochschild, Jutta: Understanding structures and functions. Functional Anatomy - Therapy relevant details. Volume 2, Stuttgart: Thieme 2002

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