Before you can start the technique, strength, and endurance training in sports climbing, you first need the knowledge of safety techniques to be able to return to the ground safely and unhurt.
To be secured by the rope, you have to attach yourself to the rope. At the
Fig. 1: The figure eight
Climbing is directly integrated with a knot in the waist strap of the waist belt. There is no carabiner used as an intermediate link between the rope and belt, as this is another link in the safety chain, which is an additional source of error. The most commonly used node is the figure eight figure. The figure eight knot is characterized by the fact that it contracts under load, but nevertheless is relatively easy to solve after a fall. A big advantage is its clear knot image, making mistakes easily recognizable.
First, a simple eight is placed in the rope (Figure 1, 1-3). In the next step, the rope is pulled through the haul loop, so that the knot is directly in front of the haul loop. Now follow the same rope through the knot (Fig. 1, 4-6). At the end, two ropes should be placed next to each other everywhere and the rope end protrude at least two inches from the knot.
Fig. 1 large
Secure with a tuber
Now we come to the second person in a rope team - the backup partner. His job is to hold the rope so that the climber is caught by the rope in a fall. Since the rope is only deflected by two carabiners in top-rope climbing, there is not enough friction in the system to be able to simply hold the rope with your hands. The weight of the climber would pull the rope through the hands of the belayer and cause burns to his hands. That's why we use backup devices that do most of the work for us.
There are several different types of backup devices. Here we go to the first
Fig. 2: Securing with the tuber - the carabiner
Secure with a tuber, as it is most commonly used. A loop of rope (Fig. 2; 1) is pushed through the tuber (Fig. 2; 2), so that the rope loop and the strap of the tuber lie parallel. A hook-and-loop carabiner is hooked through both loops (Fig. 2, 3) and then into the hauling loop of the belt. The loose end of the rope should come out the front of the belay device. This part of the rope is the brake cable. The rope that leads up to the deflector and then to the climber is the guide rope.
Fig. 2 large
Many tubers are not symmetrical, but are fluted on one side and tapered in a V-shape. The brake cable should run through this part of the tuber because it increases the braking effect. The most important rule when securing is: The brake cable must NEVER be released when backing up!
In the starting position, the strong hand (in the right-hander's right) with some distance to
Fig. 3: Securing technique with the tuber - holding
Tuber on the brake cable (Figure 3, 1). The weak hand at head height on the guide rope. When backing up, rope is pulled upwards through the tuber with the strong hand. The weak hand helps by pulling down (picture 3, 2). It is important to note that a tuber brakes only when the brake hand is below the belay device. After the rope has been pulled through to the head height, the brake cable is immediately guided down to the thigh (Figure 3, 3). Now the hand is in the braking position. Now the weak hand changes to the brake cable (picture 3, 4). The strong hand opens slightly, forming a tunnel, and slides up the rope to the other hand (Fig. 3, 5). The weak hand can now return to the starting position (Figure 3, 6). This cycle is repeated until the climber has reached the top.
Fig. 3 large
To release the climber, both hands are on the brake cable underneath the belay device (Fig. 4). The strong hand slides down the rope and leads this piece of rope through the other hand to the belay device.
Fig. 4 large
One should make the partner check before every route a habit. In doing so, they control themselves
Fig. 4: Lowering the climber
the climbing partners mutually, if no mistakes were made in the preparation. The straps, the knot and the belay device are checked. The straps must be properly tightened and closed. The figure eight must have two pairs of ropes everywhere and the loose end must protrude two inches from the knot. The rope must be correctly inserted in the tuber and the carabiner must be closed. The Partner Check will detect and correct small but serious bugs that would otherwise lead to a crash.